Judging Weldability Using Carbon Equivalence (CE)
Existing Carbon Equivalent (CE) formulas for Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) of steels do not adequately predict weld performance in AHSS. Weld quality depends on variables such as thickness, strength, loading mode, and weld size. New formulae are proposed by various entities. Because there is no universally accepted formula, use of any one CE equation is not possible and users should develop their own CE equations based on their experience.
Resistance welding depends on the interfacial resistance between two sheets. Good and consistent fit-up of parts is important to all resistance welding. Part fit-up is even more critical to the welding of AHSS due to increased YS and greater springback. In case of poor or inconsistent part fit-up, large truncated cone electrodes are recommended for both AHSS and conventional steels. The larger cap size will have large current range, which might compensate for the poor part fit-up. Also, progressive electrode force and upslope can be used to solve poor part fit-up.