Press Hardened Steels
The initial press hardening steels of the 1970s were delivered bare, without a galvanized or aluminized layer for corrosion protection (i.e., uncoated). During the heating process, an oxide layer of FeOx forms if the furnace atmosphere is not controlled. Through the years, several coating technologies have been developed to solve the following problems of uncoated steelsF-14, F-33:
- Scale formation, which causes abrasive wear and requires a secondary shotblasting process before welding,
- Decarburization, which leads to softening close to the surface,
- Risk of corrosion.
The first commercially available coating on press hardening steels was patented in 1998. The coating was designed to solve the scaling problem, but it also offered some corrosion resistance.C-24 Since the coating composition is primarily aluminium, with approximately 9% silicon, it is usually referred to as AlSi, Al-Si, or AS.
Coating thickness is nominally 25 μm (75 g/m2) on each side and referenced as AS150. A more recent offering is a thinner coating of 13 μm (AS80).A-51 The AS coating requires a special heating curve and soaking time for better weldability, corrosion resistance and running health of the furnace. Most OEMs now include furnace dew point limitations to reduce/avoid hydrogen embrittlement risk.
In 2005, Volkswagen was looking for a method to manufacture deep drawn transmission tunnels and other complex-to-form underbody components using press hardened steels. Although AS coatings were available, parts could not be formed to the full draw depth using the direct process, and AS coated blanks cracked during the cold forming portion of the two-step hybrid process. Using uncoated blanks led to severe scale formation, which increased the friction coefficient in hot forming. For this particular problem, a varnish coating was developed. The coating was applied at a steel mill, and shipped to Volkswagen’s stamping plant. The parts were first cold pre-formed and then heated in a furnace, as seen in Figure 1a. Hot pre-forms were then deep drawn to tunnels. As shown in Figure 1b, scale formed on parts which did not have the coating. A varnish coated blank could be cold formed without any scale, Figure 1c.S-63, F-34 Since then, some other varnish coatings also have been developed.
Figure 1: Transmission tunnel of 2005 Volkswagen Passat: (a) hot forming of pre-form, and final parts: (a) uncoated blank would suffer from scaling, (c) scale-free parts can be formed from varnish-coated blanks.F-34
In car bodies, components that are sealed from external moisture are referred to as dry areas. These areas have low risk of corrosion. Areas that may be exposed to moisture are wet areas. Precautions must be taken to avoid corrosion of the sheet metal, such as using galvanized or pre-coated steel. Sealants can also be applied to joints to keep out moisture. The presence of humidity in these areas increases the risk of forming a galvanic cell, leading to accelerated corrosion. These areas have higher risk of corrosion and may require additional measures. Figure 2 shows dry and wet areas. In this figure, parts colored with yellow may be classified as wet or dry, depending on the vehicle design and the OEMs requirements.G-41
Figure 2: Dry and wet areas in a car body.G-41
An estimated ~40% of press hardened components are in dry areas. Thus, high corrosion protection is desired in the 60% of all press hardened components which are employed in wet areas.B-48 Zn-based coatings are favored for their cathodic protection, but require tight process control. The first commercial use of Zn-coated PHS was in 2008, using the indirect process.P-20 Since then, direct forming of Zn-coated PHS has been studied. When direct formed, furnace soaking temperature and time must be controlled carefully to avoid deep microcracks.G-41, K-20 Recently developed are two new Zn-coated press hardening steel grades, 20MnB8 and 22MnSiB9-5, both reaching approximately 1500 MPa tensile strength after processing. Using grades requires a pre-cooling process after the furnace to solidify the Zn-based coating. 20MnB8 can be direct hot formed to final shape, whereas 22MnSiB9-5 can be formed in a transfer press in the “multi-step” process.K-21, H-27
Depending on the coating type and thickness, the process type, controls and investment requirements may change significantly. For example, some press hardening lines may be designed to form blanks with only Al-based coatings. Table 1 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of several coating systems.
Table 1: Summary of coatings available for press hardening steels.
The earliest press hardening steels did not have any coating on them. These steels are still available and may be preferred for dry areas in automotive applications. If the steel is uncoated and the furnace atmosphere is not controlled, scale formation is unavoidable. Scale is the term for iron oxides which form due to high temperature oxidation. Scale thickness increases as the time in furnace gets longer, as seen in Figure 3. Scale has to be removed before welding, requiring a shotblasting stage. Thicker scale is more difficult and more costly to remove.M-53 Early attempts to reduce (if not avoid) scale formation saw the use of an inert-gas atmosphere inside the furnace.A-52 Today, a mixture of nitrogen (N2) and natural gas (CH4) is typically used.F-35 In China, at least one tier supplier is using a vacuum furnace to prevent scale formation.A-68
Figure 3: Oxide layer (scale) on press hardened steel after: (a) fast resistance heating (10 seconds in air), (b) furnace heating (120 seconds in air).M-53
While heating uncoated steel in the furnace, if the conditions are favorable for iron (Fe) oxidation, carbon (C) may also be oxidized. When the carbon is oxidized, layers close to the surface lose their carbon content as gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) and/or carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced.S-87 The depth of the “decarburization layer” increases with dwell time in the furnace, until an oxide layer (scale) formed. Scale acts as a barrier between the bare steel and atmosphere. As the carbon is depleted in the “decarburization layer”, the hardness of the layer is decreased, as seen in Figure 4. Decarburization is usually undesirable since it lowers the strength/hardness and may negatively affect fatigue life.C-26
Figure 4: Hardness distribution of an uncoated steel after 6 minutes in a 900 °C furnace, showing hardness decrease as the surface layers lose their carbon. Image recreated after C-26.
Several methods are available to improve the corrosion resistance of uncoated PHS parts:
- E-coating after welding, before painting is a typical step of car body manufacturing, for rustproofing.
- If descaling can be done by using chromium shots (in shotblasting), a thin film of chromium-iron may grow on the surface and improve the corrosion resistance.F-14
- Vapor galvanizing (also known as Sherardizing) of uncoated steel after descaling, an experimental study described in Citation G-42.
- Electro-galvanizing after hot stamping, as described in Citation A-68.
- Change the base metal chemistry to one that is more oxidation resistant.L-60 Figure 5 compares the shiny non-oxidized surface appearance of parts made from this grade with that made from a conventional uncoated press hardening grade on the same production line with the same processing conditions.W-28
Figure 5: Oxidation resistant PHS grades may not need descaling or coatings for sufficient corrosion resistance.W-28
The first commercially available coating on press hardening steels was patented by Sollac (now part of ArcelorMittal) in 1998. This coating was designed to address the scaling problem, but also offers some barrier corrosion resistance.C-24 The nominal coating composition is 9-10 wt.% Si, 2-4 wt.% Fe, with the balance Al.L-39 The coating may be referred to as AlSi, Al-Si, AluSi or more commonly AS. Nominal as-delivered coating thickness is 25 μm (approximately 75 g/m2) on each side, and is usually referred to as AS150, with 150 referencing the total coating weight combining both sides, expressed as g/m2. More recently, a thinner coating of 13 μm (30-40 g/m2 on each side, AS60 or AS80) is now commercially available.A-51 When AS coated blanks are “tailor rolled,” the coating thickness is also reduced in a similar percentage of the base metal thickness reduction. Corrosion protection is similarly reduced, and furnace parameters need to be adjusted accordingly.
As delivered, AS150 has a coating thickness of 20-33 μm and a hardness of approximately 60 HV. The “interdiffusion layer” (abbreviated as IDL) has a high hardness and low toughness at delivery, as seen in Figure 6a. Due to the brittle nature of the IDL, AS coated blanks cannot be cold formed unless very special precautions are taken. During heating, iron from the base metal diffuses to the coating forming very hard AlSiFe (or AlFe) layers close to surface. At the same time, Al and Si of the coating diffuse to the IDL, growing it in thickness and reducing its hardness, Figure 6b. Earlier studies have shown that heating time (and also furnace temperature) has direct effect on the final thickness of IDL, as shown in Figure 7. Once the IDL thickness surpasses approximately 16 to 17 μm, the welding current range (ΔI = Iexpulsion – Imin) may be well below 2 kA.V-15, V-21, W-34 The dwell time must be long enough to ensure proper surface roughness (see Figure 6b) for e-coatability.M-27, T-40 Figure 10 summarizes the heating process window of AS coatings. The process window may change with base metal and coating thicknesses.
Figure 6: AS coating micrographs: (a) as-delivered, (b) after hot stamping process (re-created after V-15, V-21, W-34, G-32)
Figure 7: IDL thickness variation with furnace dwell time (Image created by B-55 using raw data from V-21, G-32, K-41.)
Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC, also known as hydrogen embrittlement) has been a major problem for steels over 1500 MPa tensile strength. AS coated steels may have higher diffusible hydrogen, when delivered, due to the aluminizing process occurring at 680 °C. In addition, AS coated grades may have a hydrogen absorption rate up to three times higher during heating.C-27 To reduce the hydrogen diffusion, it is essential to control the heating process (both heating rate and dew point in the furnace). AS coated blanks absorb hydrogen at room temperature; however, this happens at much lower rates than uncoated or Zn-coated blanks.J-21 Diffusible hydrogen can be removed from the press hardened part by re-heating the part to around 200 °C for 20 minutes or longer, in a process called de-embrittlement.V-21, G-32, G-43, J-21
For the abovementioned reasons, AS coated higher strength grades (i.e., PHS1800 and over) are required to have precise “dew point regulations” during the heating in furnace. Their final properties, especially elongation and bending angle, may be guaranteed only after bake hardening, as shown in Figure 8.B-32 Paint baking is standardized in Europe as a treatment for 20 minutes at 170 °C, which may act like a de-embrittlement treatment.E-10 Some OEMs also require dew point control and “subsequent de-embrittlement treatment” for AS coated PHS1500.
Figure 8: Effect of diffusible hydrogen (Hdiff) on mechanical properties of: (a) uncoated PHS2000, (b) AS coated PHS2000 in an uncontrolled furnace atmosphere (B-55 using raw data from C-27).
Another method to reduce the risk of hydrogen embrittlement is to adjust the coating composition. The bath chemistry for a standard AlSi coating consists of up to 90% aluminum, about 8% to 11% silicon and a maximum of 4% iron. Adding a maximum of 0.5% alkaline earth metals, like magnesium, for example has been shown to result in 40% less hydrogen diffusion into steel.R-29, T-45
Although not common in the industry, Al-Zn and Zn-Al-Mg based coatings have also been developed for press hardening processes.F-14 Recently introduced is an aluminium-silicon coating with magnesium additions. When oxidized with water vapor, Mg releases less H2 and thus may reduce the diffusible hydrogen.S-88
AS coatings may cause costly maintenance issues in roller hearth furnaces, as the coating may contaminate the rollers.B-14 Special care has to be taken to avoid the issue or prolong the maintenance intervals.
AS coatings provide some corrosion protection, known as “barrier protection”, as the coating forms a barrier between the oxidizing environment and the bare steel. It is quite common in Europe for a car to have 12 years corrosion protection warranty. To achieve such corrosion resistance, a typical car may have over 85% of its components galvanized.S-89
The use of Zn-coated PHS has been relatively low, compared to AS coated and uncoated grades. In 2015, 76% of the PHS sold in EU27+Turkey was AlSi coated. In these markets, 18% of the PHS sold was uncoated and only 6% was Zn coated.D-20 This can be attributed to the susceptibility of Zn-coated PHS to Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME, also known as Liquid Metal Assisted Cracks (LMAC) and Liquid Metal Induced Embrittlement (LMIE)).C-28, L-46
After heating and soaking in the furnace, the base metal should be in the austenitic phase. During heating, the Zn coating reacts with the base metal and forms a thin solid layer of body-centered-cubic solid solution of Zn in α-Fe, shown as α-Fe(Zn) in Figure 9. During deformation, a microcrack can be initiated in this layer at the grain boundaries of the austenite in the base metal, as indicated in Figure 9a. As the crack propagates, zinc from the α-Fe(Zn) layer diffuses along the austenite grain boundary and combines with iron from the base steel to form additional α-Fe(Zn), Figure 9b. Cracks propagate through the weak a-Fe(Zn) grain boundary layer, allowing liquid zinc (with diffused iron) to advance into the capillary crack (Figure 9c). After quenching, the base metal transforms to martensite and the liquid Zn transforms to a hard and brittle intermetallic phase, Γ-Fe3Zn10.C-28
Figure 9: Schematic illustration of microcrack formation. (re-created based on C-28.)
To avoid LME, three methods can be employedK-20:
- Forming in the absence of liquid Zn,
- Reducing stress level,
- Reducing material susceptibility.
There are no breakthroughs to address the last two items. Forming a part in the absence of liquid Zn involves either of two process routes: (1) Indirect press hardening (also known as form hardening), or (2) Pre-cooled direct processes.
In the direct forming of Zn-coated blanks, with or without pre-cooling, microcracks in the base metal may be observed. Microcracks less than 10 μm into the base metal does not affect the fatigue strength of the part.K-20 Microcrack depth is a function of coating thickness, furnace conditions (temperature and dwell time, see Figure 10), forming severity and forming temperature. It may be possible to direct form galvannealed (GA coated) blanks.
The boiling point of pure zinc (907 °C) is very close to the austenitization temperature of 22MnB5 (885 °C), so the heating process window of Zn-coated blanks must be controlled precisely. When the furnace dwell time is too short, deeper microcracks may be observed. When the furnace dwell time is too long, corrosion performance may be degraded. Thus, heating process window of Zn-coated blanks is significantly narrower than that of AS-coated blanks.B-14, S-90
Figure 10: Heating process window of AS and Zn coatings (representative data, may not be accurate for all sheet and coating thicknesses, re-created based on B-14, S-90.
Zn-based coatings may result in very low diffusible hydrogen after press hardening. In one studyJ-21, no diffusible hydrogen was detected, as long as the furnace dwell times are shorter than 6 minutes. Even after 50 minutes in the furnace, diffusible hydrogen was found to be around 0.06 ppm. Zn coatings do not act as a barrier for hydrogen desorption (losing H through the surface). Even at room temperature, Zn coated blanks may lose most of the diffusible hydrogen within a few days (also referred to as aging).
Figure 11: Evolution of galvanized coating: (a) as delivered: Ferrite+Pearlite in base metal, almost pure Zn coating with Al-rich inhibition layer, (b) at high temperatures: austenite in base metal + α-Fe(Zn) and liquid Zn + surface oxides, (c) after press hardening: martensite in base metal + α-Fe(Zn) and Γ-phase coatings + surface oxides. The oxides are removed prior to welding and painting.J-21
Zn-based coatings may have a yellowish color after hot stamping. The surface oxides have to be removed before welding. This is typically done by shotblasting.
PHS blanks with a ZnNi coating were previously available. The ZnNi coating provided a low friction coefficient, a large process window in the furnace, the ability to be cold formed (indirect or two-step hybrid processes were also possible) and decreased susceptibility to LME.B-56 ZnNi coated PHS was used in the rear rail of the Opel Adam city carH-57 for a short period, until the coating was discontinued.C-29
Another method to avoid scaling and decarburization is to apply varnish coatings. In this method, uncoated steel can be either coil coated or blanks can be manually coated with the paint-like varnish coatings.B-14 These coatings may also be known as “paint-type” or “sol-gel”.
Figure 12: Manual application of a varnish coating.F-34
Depending on the type of coating, they may allow very fast heating – including induction and conduction heating with electric current. Since the coating does not require time to diffuse, furnace heating may be completed in less than 2 minutes.F-34 Again, depending on the type, surface conditioning may not be required before welding or e-coating.B-14
They were used in automotive industry between 2005 and 2010. By 2015 there were four different types of varnish coatings, some of which are now discontinued.B-14 These coatings may be useful for prototyping and low volume production.
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Many formed parts require corrosion protection, achieved through the application of some type of zinc-based or aluminum-based coating. The primary methods of applying zinc are through a hot dipped galvanizing line, or through an electro-galvanizing process. Aluminum-based coatings are applied in a hot dipped aluminizing line.
Both aluminized and galvanized coatings provide a barrier layer preventing corrosion of the underlying sheet steel. Zinc-based coatings also provide galvanic protection, where the zinc acts as a sacrificial anode if scratches or impact damage the coating, and therefore corrodes first before the underlying steel.
Aluminum melts at a higher temperature than zinc, which is why aluminized steels are more frequently used in applications requiring corrosion protection at elevated temperatures such as those found in the engine compartment and in the exhaust system. There are two types of aluminized coatings, known as Type 1 (aluminum with 9% silicon) and Type 2 (pure aluminum). The aluminum-silicon AlSi coating associated with press hardening steels are these Type 1 aluminized coatings. There are limited automotive applications for Type 2 pure aluminum coatings.
Zinc-magnesium coatings are relatively new options, offering enhanced cut edge corrosion protection, with lower friction and lower risk of galling and powdering than other common zinc coatings.
Most hot dipped galvanized lines produce surfaces which result in similar coefficients of friction for a given steel type. Different electrogalvanized coating lines may result in different surface morphologies, which can result in significantly different formability characteristics.
Passing a pure zinc-coated steel through a furnace allows the steel and zinc to inter-diffuse and results in an alloyed coating known as galvanneal. Hot dipped galvannealed coatings have improved joining due to the iron in the coating. Unlike the uniform coating composition associated with hot dip galvanized and electrogalvanized coatings, GA coatings are composed of different phases with varying composition. This may lead to different forming, joining, and painting characteristics when comparing products produced on different lines.
Differences in performance due to coating line characteristics is another reason why it is good practice to Identify the intended steel production source early in the die construction and die try-out process. Tryout material should come from the same source as will supply production.
Hot Dipped Galvanized and Galvannealed Coatings
The majority of sheet steel parts on a vehicle require corrosion protection, independent of whether they are made from mild or high strength steel and whether they are intended for exposed or unexposed applications. Hot dipped galvanizing – applying a zinc coating over the steel – is the most common way to achieve corrosion protection. It is an economical solution, since cold rolled steel can be annealed and coated in the same continuous operation.
A typical in-line continuous hot dip galvanizing line such as that shown in Figure 1 uses a full-hard cold rolled steel coil as the feedstock. Welding individual coils together produces a continuous strip. After cleaning, the strip is processed in a continuous annealing furnace where the microstructure is recrystallized, improving forming characteristics. Adjustments to the annealing temperature produces the desired microstructure associated with the ordered grade. Rather than cooling to room temperature, the in-process coil is cooled to just above 460 °C (860 °F), the temperature of the molten zinc bath it enters. The chemistry in the zinc pot is a function of whether a hot dipped galvanized or galvannealed coating is ordered. Hot rolled steels may be coated with the hot dip galvanizing process, but different processing conditions are used to achieve the targeted properties.
Figure 1: Schematic of a typical hot dipped galvanizing line with galvanneal capability.
There are several types of hot dipped coatings for automotive applications, with unique characteristics that affect their corrosion protection, lubricity for forming, weldability and paintability. One of the primary hot dipped galvanized coatings is a pure zinc coating (abbreviated as GI), sometime referred to as free zinc. The molten zinc bath has small amounts of aluminum which helps to form a thin Fe2Al5 layer at the zinc-steel interface. This thin barrier layer prevents zinc from diffusing into the base steel, which leaves the coating as essentially pure zinc.
Coils pass through the molten zinc at speeds up to 3 meters per second. Zinc coating weight is controlled by gas knives (typically air or nitrogen) blowing off excess liquid zinc as the coil emerges from the bath. Zinc remaining on the surface solidifies into crystals called spangle. Molten zinc chemistry and cooling practices used at the galvanizing line control spangle size. In one extreme, a large spangle zinc coating is characteristic of garbage cans and grain silos. In the other extreme, the zinc crystal structure is sufficiently fine that it is not visible to the unaided eye. Since spangle can show through on a painted surface, a minimum-spangle or no-spangle option is appropriate for surface-critical applications.
The other primary hot dipped coating used for corrosion protection is hot dipped galvanneal (abbreviated as GA). Applying this coating to a steel coil involves the same steps as creating a free zinc hot dipped coated steel, but after exiting the zinc pot, the steel strip passes through a galvannealing furnace where the zinc coating is reheated while still molten.
The molten zinc bath used to produce a GA coating has a lower aluminum content than what is used to produce a GI coating. Without aluminum to create the barrier layer, the zinc coating and the base steel inter-diffuse freely, creating an iron-zinc alloy with typical average iron content in the 8% to 12% range. The iron content improves weldability, which is a key attribute of the galvanneal coatings.
The iron content is unevenly distributed throughout the coating, ranging from 5% at the surface (where the sheet metal coating contacts the tool surface during forming) to as much as 25% iron content at the steel/coating interface. The amount of iron at the surface and distribution within the coating is a function of galvannealing parameters and practices – primarily the bath composition and time spent at the galvannealing temperature. Coating iron content impacts coating hardness, which affects the interaction with the sheet forming lubricant and tools, and results in changes in friction. The hard GA coatings have a greater powdering tendency during contact with tooling surfaces, especially during movement through draw beads. Powdering is minimized by using thinner coatings – where 50 g/m2 to 60 g/m2 (50G to 60G) is a typical EG and GI coating weight, GA coatings are more commonly between 30 g/m2 to 45 g/m2 (30A to 45A)
Options to improve formability on parts made from GA coated steels include use of press-applied lubricants or products that can be applied at the steel mill after galvanizing, like roll-coated phosphate, which have the additional benefit of added lubricity. The surface morphology of a galvannealed surface (Figure 2) promotes good phosphate adherence, which in turn is favorable for paintability.
Figure 2: High magnification photograph of a galvannealed steel surface. The surface structure results in excellent paint adhesion.
Galvannealed coatings provides excellent corrosion protection to the underlying steel, as do GI and EG coatings. GI and EG coatings are essentially pure zinc. Zinc acts as a sacrificial anode if scratches or impact damages either coating, and therefore will corrode first before the underlying steel. The corrosion product of GI and EG is white, and is a combination of zinc carbonate and zinc hydroxide. A similar mechanism protects GA coated steels, but the presence of iron in the coating may result in a reddish tinge to the corrosion product. This should not be interpreted as an indication of corrosion of the steel substrate.
Another option is to change the bath composition such that it contains proper amounts of aluminum and magnesium. The results in a zinc-magnesium (ZM) coating, which has excellent cut edge corrosion protection.
Producing galvanized and galvannealed Advanced High Strength Steels is challenging due to the interactions of the necessary thermal cycles at each step. As an example, the targeted microstructure of Dual Phase steels can be achieved by varying the temperature and time the steel strip passes through the zinc bath, and can be adjusted to achieve the targeted strength level. However, not all advanced high strength steels can attain their microstructure with the thermal profile of a conventional hot dipped galvanizing line with limited rapid quenching capabilities. In addition, many AHSS grades have chemistries that lead to increased surface oxides, preventing good zinc adhesion to the surface. These grades must be produced on a stand-alone Continuous Annealing Line, or CAL, without an in-line zinc pot. Continuous Annealing Lines feature a furnace with variable and rapid quenching operations that enable the thermal processing required to achieve very high strength levels. If corrosion protection is required, these steel grades are coated on an electrogalvanizing line (EG) in a separate operation, after being processed on a CAL line.
Hot dipped galvanizing lines at different steel companies have similar processes that result in similar surfaces with respect to coefficient of friction. Surface finish and texture (and resultant frictional characteristics) are primarily due to work roll textures, based on the customer specification. Converting from one coating line to another using the same specification is usually not of major significance with respect to coefficient of friction. A more significant change in friction is observed with changes between GI and GA and EG.
Electrogalvanizing is a zinc deposition process, where the zinc is electrolytically bonded to steel in order to protect against corrosion. The process involves electroplating: running an electrical current through the steel strip as it passes through a saline/zinc solution.
Electrogalvanizing occurs at room temperature, so the microstructure, mechanical, and physical properties of AHSS products achieved on a continuous anneal line (CAL) are essentially unchanged after the electrogalvanizing (EG) process. EG lines have multiple plating cells, with each cell capable of being on or off. As a result, chief advantages of electrogalvanizing compared to hot dipped galvanizing include: (1) lower processing temperatures, (2) precise coating weight control, and (3) brighter, more uniform coatings which are easier to convert to Class A exposed quality painted surfaces.
The majority of electrogalvanizing lines can apply only pure (free) zinc coatings, known as EG for electrogalvanized steel. Selected lines can apply different types of coatings, like EGA (electro-galvanneal) or Zn-Ni (zinc-nickel).
There are no concerns about different alloy phases in the coating as with galvanneal coatings. The lack of aluminum in the coating results in improved weldability. The biggest concern with electrogalvanizing lines is the coefficient of friction. Electrogalvanized (EG) coatings have a relatively high coefficient of friction – higher than hot dipped galvanized coatings, but lower than galvanneal coatings. To improve formability of electrogalvanized sheets, some automakers choose to use a steel mill-applied pre-lube rather than a simple mill-applied rust preventive oil.
A representative EG line is shown in Figure 3. Different EG lines may use different technologies to apply the zinc crystals. Because the zinc crystals are deposited in a different fashion, these different processes may potentially result in different surface morphology and, in turn, a different coefficient of friction. Dry conditions may result in a higher coefficient of friction, but the “stacked plate-like surface morphology” (Figure 4) allows these coatings to trap and hold lubrication better than the smoother surfaces of hot dipped galvanizing coatings. Auto manufacturers should therefore consult the steel supplier for specific lubricant recommendations based on the forming needs.
Figure 3: Schematic of an electrogalvanizing line.
Figure 4: High magnification photograph of electrogalvanized steel surface showing stacked plate-like structure.
Zinc-Magnesium (ZM) Coatings
Galvanized coatings offer excellent corrosion protection to the underlying steel. Each type of galvanized coating has characteristics that make it suitable for specific applications and environments. The method by which the galvanization occurs (electrolytically applied vs. hot dipping) changes these characteristics, as does the coating chemistry (pure zinc vs. zinc alloy)
Adding small amounts of magnesium and aluminum affects the coating properties, which influences friction, surface appearance, and corrosion among other parameters.
Industries like agriculture and construction have used a coating known as ZAM for several decades. ZAM (Zinc-Aluminum-Magnesium) is primarily zinc, with approximately 6% Al and 3% Mg. However, the high aluminum content does not lend itself to a continuous galvanizing operation due to increased dross formation. The coating aluminum also degrades weldability.
A different coating, known as ZM, was commercialized around 2010. This zinc-rich coating typically has 1% to 3% of both magnesium and aluminum, with some companies using a slightly higher amount of aluminum. ZM coatings are typically applied using a hot dip approach like GI and GA, but with an appropriate bath chemistry. Exposed quality surfaces are achievable.
Even though ZM is a relatively hard coating, it is associated with lower friction and lower risk of galling and powdering than other common zinc coatings. This allows for parts to be successfully formed using higher blank holder forces, resulting in a wider BHF range between wrinkles and splits.Z-6
ZM coatings have similar joining characteristics and similar performance after phosphating / painting as hot dip galvanized coatings.
Enhanced cut edge corrosion protection relative to EG, GI, and GA coatings occurs due to the formation of a stable passivation layer on the bare steel edge that would be otherwise exposed to the environment. ZM coating corrosion dynamics are such that similar performance to EG, GI, and GA can be achieved at lower ZM coating weights.
Powdering resistance of ZM coatings are similar to that for GI and EG, and better than what is seen on GA coatings. ZM coatings have superior cyclic, perforating, and stone chip corrosion resistance.
Potential areas of application applications include:
- Hem flanges of doors, deck lids, and hoods
- Cut edges in inner hood, door, and deck lid panels
- Stone chip sensitive parts like hoods, fenders, doors, and body sides.
- Difficult to form parts that can benefit from the lower friction