Total Elongation to Fracture
Deformation continues in the local neck until fracture occurs. The amount of additional strain that can be accommodated in the necked region depends on the microstructure. Inclusions, particles, and grain boundary cracking can accelerate early fracture. Total elongation is measured from start of deformation to start of fracture. Two extensometer gauge lengths are commonly used: A50 (50mm or 2 inches) and A80 (80 mm).
In the past, limited automation and measurement equipment necessitated the use of a non-repeatable technique defined in ASTM E8A-24 and ISO 6892-1I-7 as “elongation after fracture.” Here, the operator attempts to position the two fractured strips back together and hand measures the distance between two gauge marks on the sample.
Tensile testing combined with data acquisition systems are much more commonplace today. According to ASTM E8, the elongation at fracture shall be taken as the strain measured just prior to when the force falls below 10 % of the maximum force encountered during the test. Both elastic strains and plastic strains are included in the measurement.